Embedded Robotics: Mobile Robot Design and Applications with Embedded Systems

الغلاف الأمامي
Springer Science & Business Media, 10‏/09‏/2008 - 541 من الصفحات
Terms of Use Part I Embedded Systems 1 Robots and Controllers p. 3 1.1 Mobile Robots p. 4 1.2 Embedded Controllers p. 7 1.3 Interfaces p. 10 1.4 Operating System p. 13 1.5 References p. 15 2 Central Processing Unit p. 17 2.1 Logic Gates p. 18 2.2 Function Units p. 23 2.3 Registers and Memory p. 28 2.4 Retro p. 30 2.5 Arithmetic Logic Unit p. 32 2.6 Control Unit p. 34 2.7 Central Processing Unit p. 35 2.8 References p. 47 3 Sensors p. 49 3.1 Sensor Categories p. 50 3.2 Binary Sensor p. 51 3.3 Analog versus Digital Sensors p. 51 3.4 Shaft Encoder p. 52 3.5 A/D Converter p. 54 3.6 Position Sensitive Device p. 55 3.7 Compass p. 57 3.8 Gyroscope, Accelerometer, Inclinometer p. 59 3.9 Digital Camera p. 62 3.10 References p. 70 4 Actuators p. 73 4.1 DC Motors p. 73 4.2 H-Bridge p. 76 4.3 Pulse Width Modulation p. 78 4.4 Stepper Motors p. 80 4.5 Servos p. 81 4.6 References p. 82 5 Control p. 83 5.1 On-Off Control p. 83 5.2 PID Control p. 89 5.3 Velocity Control and Position Control p. 94 5.4 Multiple Motors - Driving Straight p. 96 5.5 V-Omega Interface p. 98 5.6 References p. 101 6 Multitasking p. 103 6.1 Cooperative Multitasking p. 103 6.2 Preemptive Multitasking p. 105 6.3 Synchronization p. 107 6.4 Scheduling p. 111 6.5 Interrupts and Timer-Activated Tasks p. 114 6.6 References p. 116 7 Wireless Communication p. 117 7.1 Communication Model p. 118 7.2 Messages p. 120 7.3 Fault-Tolerant Self-Configuration p. 121 7.4 User Interface and Remote Control p. 123 7.5 Sample Application Program p. 126 7.6 References p. 127 Part II Mobile Robot Design 8 Driving Robots p. 131 8.1 Single Wheel Drive p. 131 8.2 Differential Drive p. 132 8.3 Tracked Robots p. 136 8.4 Synchro-Drive p. 137 8.5 Ackermann Steering p. 139 8.6 Drive Kinematics p. 141 8.7 References p. 145 9 Omni-Directional Robots p. 147 9.1 Mecanum Wheels p. 147 9.2 Omni-Directional Drive p. 149 9.3 Kinematics p. 151 9.4 Omni-Directional Robot Design p. 152 9.5 Driving Program p. 154 9.6 References p. 155 10 Balancing Robots p. 157 10.1 Simulation p. 157 10.2 Inverted Pendulum Robot p. 158 10.3 Double Inverted Pendulum p. 162 10.4 References p. 163 11 Walking Robots p. 165 11.1 Six-Legged Robot Design p. 165 11.2 Biped Robot Design p. 168 11.3 Sensors for Walking Robots p. 172 11.4 Static Balance p. 174 11.5 Dynamic Balance p. 175 11.6 References p. 182 12 Autonomous Planes p. 185 12.1 Application p. 185 12.2 Control System and Sensors p. 188 12.3 Flight Program p. 189 12.4 References p. 192 13 Autonomous Vessels and Underwater Vehicles p. 195 13.1 Application p. 195 13.2 Dynamic Model p. 197 13.3 AUV Design Mako p. 197 13.4 AUV Design USAL p. 201 13.5 References p. 204 14 Robot Manipulators p. 205 14.1 Homogeneous Coordinates p. 206 14.2 Kinematics p. 207 14.3 Simulation and Programming p. 212 14.4 References p. 213 15 Simulation Systems p. 215 15.1 Mobile Robot Simulation p. 215 15.2 EyeSim Simulation System p. 216 15.3 Multiple Robot Simulation p. 221 15.4 EyeSim Application p. 222 15.5 EyeSim Environment and Parameter Files p. 223 15.6 SubSim Simulation System p. 228 15.7 Actuator and Sensor Models p. 230 15.8 SubSim Application p. 232 15.9 SubSim Environment and Parameter Files p. 234 15.10 References p. 237 Part III Mobile Robot Applications 16 Localization and Navigation p. 241 16.1 Localization p. 241 16.2 Probabilistic Localization p. 245 16.3 Coordinate Systems p. 249 16.4 Environment Representation p. 251 16.5 Visibility Graph p. 253 16.6 Voronoi Diagram p. 255 16.7 Potential Field Method p. 258 16.8 Wandering Standpoint Algorithm p. 259 16.9 Bug Algorithm Family p. 260 16.10 Dijkstra's Algorithm p. 263 16.11 A* Algorithm p. 267 16.12 References p. 268 17 Maze Exploration p. 271 17.1 Micro Mouse Contest p. 271 17.2 Maze Exploration Algorithms p. 273 17.3 Simulated versus Real Maze Program p. 281 17.4 References p. 282 18 Map Generation p. 283 18.1 Mapping Algorithm p. 283 18.2 Data Representation p. 285 18.3 Boundary-Following Algorithm p. 286 18.4 Algorithm Execution p. 287 18.5 Simulation Experiments p. 289 18.6 Robot Experiments p. 290 18.7 Results p. 293 18.8 References p. 294 19 Real-Time Image Processing p. 297 19.1 Camera Interface p. 297 19.2 Auto-Brightness p. 299 19.3 Edge Detection p. 300 19.4 Motion Detection p. 302 19.5 Color Space p. 303 19.6 Color Object Detection p. 305 19.7 Image Segmentation p. 310 19.8 Image Coordinates versus World Coordinates p. 312 19.9 References p. 314 20 Robot Soccer p. 317 20.1 RoboCup and FIRA Competitions p. 317 20.2 Team Structure p. 320 20.3 Mechanics and Actuators p. 321 20.4 Sensing p. 321 20.5 Image Processing p. 323 20.6 Trajectory Planning p. 325 20.7 References p. 330 21 Neural Networks p. 331 21.1 Neural Network Principles p. 331 21.2 Feed-Forward Networks p. 332 21.3 Backpropagation p. 337 21.4 Neural Network Examples p. 342 21.5 Neural Controller p. 343 21.6 References p. 344 22 Genetic Algorithms p. 347 22.1 Genetic Algorithm Principles p. 348 22.2 Genetic Operators p. 350 22.3 Applications to Robot Control p. 352 22.4 Example Evolution p. 353 22.5 Implementation of Genetic Algorithms p. 357 22.6 Starman p. 361 22.7 References p. 363 23 Genetic Programming p. 365 23.1 Concepts and Applications p. 365 23.2 Lisp p. 367 23.3 Genetic Operators p. 371 23.4 Evolution p. 373 23.5 Tracking Problem p. 374 23.6 Evolution of Tracking Behavior p. 377 23.7 References p. 381 24 Behavior-Based Systems p. 383 24.1 Software Architecture p. 383 24.2 Behavior-Based Robotics p. 384 24.3 Behavior-Based Applications p. 387 24.4 Behavior Framework p. 388 24.5 Adaptive Controller p. 391 24.6 Tracking Problem p. 395 24.7 Neural Network Controller p. 396 24.8 Experiments p. 398 24.9 References p. 400 25 Evolution of Walking Gaits p. 403 25.1 Splines p. 403 25.2 Control Algorithm p. 404 25.3 Incorporating Feedback p. 406 25.4 Controller Evolution p. 407 25.5 Controller Assessment p. 409 25.6 Evolved Gaits p. 410 25.7 References p. 413 26 Automotive Systems p. 415 26.1 Autonomous Automobiles p. 415 26.2 Automobile Conversion for Autonomous Driving p. 418 26.3 Computer Vision for Driver-Assistance Systems p. 420 26.4 Image Processing Framework p. 421 26.5 Lane Detection p. 422 26.6 Vehicle Recognition and Tracking p. 429 26.7 Automatic Parking p. 433 26.8 References p. 436 27 Outlook p. 439 Appendices A Programming Tools p. 443 B RoBIOS Operating System p. 453 C Hardware Description Table p. 495 D Hardware Specification p. 511 E Laboratories p. 519 F Solutions p. 529 Index p. 533.
 

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حقوق النشر

طبعات أخرى - عرض جميع المقتطفات

عبارات ومصطلحات مألوفة

نبذة عن المؤلف (2008)

Bräunl is Associate Professor at the University of Western Australia, Perth, where he founded and directs the Mobile Robot Lab and is also Director of the Centre for Intelligent Information Processing Systems (CIIPS). Professor Bräunl received a Diploma in Informatics in 1986 from Univ. Kaiserslautern, an MS in Computer Science in 1987 from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and a PhD and Habilitation in Informatics in 1989 and 1994, respectively, from Univ. Stuttgart. He has worked in the past for BASF and DaimlerChrysler and has founded a company for innovative mobile robot design. Professor Bräunl's research interests are robotics, vision, graphics, and concurrency. He is author of several research books and textbooks and has developed the EyeBot mobile robot family.

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