Earnings Inequality, Unemployment, and Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa

الغلاف الأمامي
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000 - 233 من الصفحات

The past ten years for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region countries have registered an extreme deterioration in at least one measure of social and economic welfare: earnings inequality, unemployment, and poverty. The combination of slow economic growth, population explosion, and decline in labor productivity led to the reversal of the economic gains achieved during the economic boom in the 1970s. In contrast to that period, growth per capita (GDP) in 1980-1991 for Arab countries was -0.2%. Several indicators point to the extent of the problems faced today by the region's countries. Although the percentage of poverty declined for the majority of the regions in the world in 1985-1990, it has increased in the MENA region.

The purpose of this volume is to address the conditions of earnings inequality, unemployment, and poverty in the MENA region and the problems associated with these factors; to determine the state and magnitude of these problems through various country studies; and to provide solutions to alleviate the negative conditions facing developing economies, with special emphasis on the MENA countries.

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الصفحات المحددة


Some Introductory Observations on Poverty and Earnings Inequality in the Arab World
Measurement of Inequality Motivation and Survey
Unraveling the Paradox in Egypts Trends in Income Inequality and Poverty
Trade Reform and the Poor in Morocco A RuralUrban General Equilibrium Analysis of Reduced Protection
Earning Profiles of Women Workers and Education in the Middle East
Fiscal Policy and Social Welfare in Selected MENA Countries
Does Structural Adjustment Spell Relief from Unemployment? A Comparison of Four IMF Success Stories in the Middle East and North Africa
Earnings Education Experience and Gender Kuwaiti Evidence
What Accounts for Earnings Inequality in Jordan and How Can Labor Policies Help Reduce Poverty?
Unemployment Low Wages and Income Inequality The Triangle of Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa
Ideology Economic Restructuring and Womens Work in Iran 19761996
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مقاطع مشهورة

الصفحة 100 - The evidence in this Report suggests that rapid and politically sustainable progress on poverty has been achieved by pursuing a strategy that has two equally important elements.
الصفحة 190 - PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the US dollar has in the United States.
الصفحة 33 - The easiest way to get an unbiased sample is to ensure that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected in the sample.
الصفحة 56 - ... are fixed in foreign currency). Institution In the base year, both rural and urban households receive the bulk of their incomes from factor earnings in their respective regions. Compared to the non-poor, the poor in both regions depend more heavily on labour incomes in general and unskilled labour incomes in particular. In addition to factor income, households receive transfers from the government (the transfer received by each household is a fixed GDP share) and the rest of the world (fixed...
الصفحة 100 - It calls for policies that harness market incentives, social and political institutions, infrastructure, and technology to that end. The second is to provide basic social services to the poor. Primary health care, family planning, nutrition, and primary education are especially important.
الصفحة 106 - Notes This is a revised version of a paper presented at the conference on 'Anthropology of Experience, Feeling and Emotion in South Asia' held at Houston, Texas on 12-15 December, 1985.
الصفحة 62 - Available information was brought together in one matrix, the disaggregation of which parallels the disaggregation of the current model. Underlying the construction of such a SAM is an attempt to make the best possible use of available scattered data. Inevitably imbalances appear when data from different sources and years are integrated in one framework; a...
الصفحة 16 - In this case, the question is narrowed to one of choosing e, which is clearly a measure of the degree of inequality-aversion - or the relative sensitivity to transfers at different income levels. As e rises, we attach more weight to transfers at the lower end of the distribution and less weight to transfers at the top. The limiting case at one extreme is...
الصفحة 24 - Measures of Relative Equality and Their Meaning in Terms of Social Welfare," Journal of Economic Theory, 18, 59-80. (1980): "Ethical Indices for the Measurement of Poverty," Econometrica, 48, 10531062. - (1984): "Ethical Social Index Numbers and the Measurement of Effective Tax/Benefit Progressivity," Canadian Journal of Economics, 17, 683-94.

نبذة عن المؤلف (2000)

WASSIM SHAHIN is Dean of the School of Business at the Lebanese American University in Byblos, Lebanon, and author of Money Supply and Deficit Financing in Economic Development (Quorum Books, 1992).

GHASSAN DIBEH is Chairperson of the Department of Economics at the School of Business at the Lebanese American University in Byblos, Lebanon.

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